Grammaire

General French Grammar

Conjugating = changing verb to agree with the subject noun or pronoun.

Subject noun = subject of the sentence e.g., person, place, thing, idea, or quality.

Subject pronoun = pronouns that replace the subject noun, eliminates repetition of same noun. See table below.

Subject Pronouns

Person Singular Plural
1st Je (I) Nous (we)
2nd Tu (you) Vous (you)
3rd Il (he, it) Ils (they)
Elle (she, it) Elles (they)
On (one, you, we, they)

Notes on Subject Pronouns

Je = “je” becomes j’ before a vowel or vowel sounds (y and h).

Tu = informal “you” (e.g., friend, child, pet, relative).

Vous = formal, polite pronoun “you” (e.g., older person, stranger). Also used for plural version of “you”.

On = “we” often replace nous.

Ce (C’ before a vowel) = “it, he, she, this, that, these, those”  Often used before verb to be, etre. Can replace il, elle, ils and elles; for example:

  • Before a name : C’est Jean.
  • Before a pronoun : C’est moi.
  • Before a modified noun: C’est une bonne classe.
  • Before a superlative : C’est le plus belle.
  • For use with dates: C’est le vingt-quatre mars.
  • Can be used after a noun or action : il est compliqué. C’est dur.
  • Before an adjective (à + verb infinitive): C’est inutile à faire.

Keyboard Shortcuts

à ALT + 133
é ALT + 130
è ALT + 138
Ï ALT + 216
î ALT + 140
ç ALT + 135
ù ALT + 151
« ALT + 174
» ALT + 175
œ ALT + 0156

the

Définit articles – definite articles

Le Masculine article, singulier
La Féminine article, singulier
Les Pluriel

a

indéfinités articles – indefinite articles

Un Masculine article, singulier
Une Féminine article, singulier

at

à + le = au Masculine article, singulier
à + la = à la Féminine article, singulier
à + les = aux Pluriel

of / some

partitif articles – partitive articles

de + le = du Masculine article, singulier
de + la = de la Féminine article, singulier
de + les = des Pluriel

this, that, these, those

démonstratif articles – demonstrative articles

ce Masculine article, singulier
cet Masculine article, singulier (avant un voyell – before a vowel)
cette Féminine article, singulier
ces Pluriel

my, your, his, her, our, their

possessif déterminants – possessive determiners

my

mon Masculine article, singulier
ma Féminine article, singulier
mes Pluriel

his/her

sa Féminine article, singulier
son Masculine article, singulier
ses Pluriel

your (informel)

ta Féminine article, singulier
ton Masculine article, singulier
tes Pluriel

your (formel)

votre Singulier
vos Pluriel

our

notre Standard
nos Pluriel

their

leur Singulier
leurs Pluriel

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